Mount Bromo (Indonesian: Gunung Bromo ), is an active volcano and part of the Tengger massif, in East Java, Indonesia. At 2,329 meters (7.641 ft) it is not the highest peak of the massif, but is the most well known. The massif area is one of the most visited tourist Attractions in East Java, Indonesia. The volcano belongs to the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park. The name of Bromo derived from Javanese pronunciation of Brahma, the Hindu creator god.
Mount Bromo sits in the middle of a plain called the “Sea of Sand” (Javanese: Segara Wedi or Indonesian: Sand Sea ), a protected nature reserve since 1919. The typical way to visit Mount Bromo is from the nearby mountain village of Cemoro Mace. From there it is possible to walk to the volcano in about 45 minutes, but It is also possible to take an organized jeep tour, the which includes a stop at the viewpoint on Mount Penanjakan (2,770 m or 9.088 ft) (Indonesian: Gunung Penanjakan ) , The viewpoint on Mount Penanjakan can also be Reached on foot in about two hours.
Depending on the degree of volcanic activity, the Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Disaster Hazard Mitigation sometimes issues warnings against visiting Mount Bromo .
The Ijen volcano complex is a group of composite volcanoes in the Banyuwangi Regency of East Java, Indonesia.
It is inside a larger caldera Ijen, which is about 20 kilometres wide. The Gunung Merapi stratovolcano is the highest point of that complex. The name “Gunung Merapi” means “mountain of fire” in the Indonesian language (api being “fire”); Mount Merapi in central Java and Marapi in Sumatra have the same etymology.
West of Gunung Merapi is the Ijen volcano, which has a one-kilometre-wide turquoise-coloured acidic crater lake. The lake is the site of a labour-intensive sulfur mining operation, in which sulfur-laden baskets are carried by hand from the crater floor. The work is paid well considering the cost of living in the area, but is very onerous. Workers earn around Rp 50,000 – 75,000 ($5.50-$8.30) per day and once out of the crater, still need to carry their loads of sulfur chunks about three kilometers to the nearby Paltuding Valley to get paid.
Many other post-caldera cones and craters are located within the caldera or along its rim. The largest concentration of post-caldera cones run east-west across the southern side of the caldera. The active crater at Kawah Ijen has a diameter of 722 metres (2,369 ft) and a surface area of 0.41 square kilometres (0.16 sq mi). It is 200 metres (660 ft) deep and has a volume of 36 cubic hectometres (29,000 acre·ft).
The lake is recognised as the largest highly acidic crater lake in the world. It is also a source for the river Banyupahit, resulting in highly acidic and metal-enriched river water which has a significant detrimental effect on the downstream river ecosystem. On July 14–15, 2008, explorer George Kourounis took a small rubber boat out onto the acid lake to measure its acidity. The pH of the water in the lake’s edges was measured to be 0.5 and in the middle of the lake 0.13 due to high sulfuric acid concentration.
Since National Geographic mentioned the electric-blue flame of Ijen, tourist numbers increased. The phenomenon has occurred for a long time, but beforehand there was no midnight hiking. A two-hour hike is required to reach the rim of the crater, followed by a 45-minute hike down to the bank of the crater. The blue fire is ignited sulphuric gas, which emerges from cracks at temperatures up to 600 degrees Celsius (1,112 degrees Fahrenheit).
The flames can be up to 5 metres (16 feet) high; some of the gas condenses to liquid and is still ignited. It is the largest blue flame area in the world and local people refer to it as ‘Blue Fire’.
An active vent at the edge of the lake is a source of elemental sulfur, and supports a mining operation. Escaping volcanic gases are channelled through a network of ceramic pipes, resulting in condensation of molten sulfur. The sulphur, which is deep red in colour when molten, pours slowly from the ends of these pipes and pools on the ground, turning bright yellow as it cools. The miners break the cooled material into large pieces and carry it away in baskets. Miners carry loads ranging from 75 kilograms (165 lb) to 90 kilograms (200 lb), up 300 metres (980 ft) to the crater rim, with a gradient of 45 to 60 degrees and then 3 kilometres (1.86 miles) down the mountain for weighing. Most miners make this journey twice a day. A nearby sugar refinery pays the miners by the weight of sulfur transported; as of September 2010, the typical daily earnings were equivalent to approximately $13 US. The miners often receive insufficient protection while working around the volcano and complain of numerous respiratory afflictions. There are 200 miners, who extract 14 tons per day – about 20 percent of the continuous daily deposit.
Sukamade beach is about 97 km to the southwest of Banyuwangi . It is a natural and quiet, beautiful place. Dutch discovered it in 1927. The 1200 hectare estate is an active plantation that produces rubber, coffee and cacao. Sukamade is the east Java Natural Resource Conservation the which is in charge of the turtle’s perpetuation. A night adventure tour to Sukamade is an unforgettable trip. You will be guided by a natural resource to find sea turtles come to a shore to lay eggs. You can see a female turtle lays more than one hundred eggs on the sandy beach. The female turtles usually start landing at 7:30 pm and returns to the sea at 12:00 PM. November to March is the peak season for laying eggs.
The ways to Sukamade is worth exploring. Along the way to visit this place the visitors can stop at the beautiful place of Rajegwesi, Green Bay a fantastic green bay with its beautiful cliff around. A dawn excursion to see animals on the savannah grassing IS ALSO impressing. They are virgin places you must know in the eastern tip of Java, Banyuwangi, Indonesia.
Alas Purwo National Park is situated on Blambangan Peninsula in the Banyuwangi Regency, at the southeastern tip of East Java province. The park is famous for its wild Banteng and surfing location at Grajagan Bay. The park’s name means first forest or ancient forest, in accordance with a Javanese legend that says the earth first emerged from the ocean here.
The park is located in Blambangan Peninsula at the southeastern tip of Java island, along the shore of strait across Bali. With an area of 434 km2, the park is made up of mangroves, savanna, lowland monsoon forests and coral-fringed beaches. An internationally renowned surf break peels along the edge of the park at Plengkung on Grajagan Bay. Mount Linggamanis (322m) is also located in this national park.
The flora protected in this national park include: Terminalia catappa, Calophyllum inophyllum, Sterculia foetida, Barringtonia asiatica and Manilkara kauki.
It is home to some of Java’s endangered species, such as the banteng (Bos javanicus). In April 2004, there were only 57 bantengs found in the savanna of Sadengan, while the population in the previous year was estimated to be 80 to 100, but in August 2010, the scientists found 73 bantengs in the 80-hectare savanna area, a big increase in 6 years, although they faced threats of poaching and loss of habitat. Herds of bantengs usually come to Sadengan in the morning and afternoon in search of plants.
The biggest threat to the bantengs are humans. Poachers set traps outside the park during the dry season to snare bantengs wandering outside the park in search of water. The bantengs are slaughtered and the meat sold.
Other threatened animal species protected in Alas Purwo include the dhole, Javan langur, green peafowl, red junglefowl, olive ridley, hawksbill turtle and green turtle.
Between the months of March and November, thousands of surfers from all over the world visit the park for its surf break. The destination is Plengkung Beach in Grajagan bay, also known as G-Land, which is about half a day’s travel from Bali.
The beach is considered one of the best surfing spots in Asia. With rideable waves up to 5 meters, it is considered a spot for experienced surfers only. The place is listed as Quicksilver World Tour Circuit.